Chuck cappers can be rotary or inline, continuous or intermittent motion. They can run at speeds from 20ppm to 1200ppm or more. What all have in common is that the use a female chuck to engage the male cap and turn it down to a precise application torque.
The first thing to understand it that the end user is only interested in removal torque, sometimes called “off torque”. Too much removal torque and they will not be able to get the cap open. Too little and it will leak. Big leaks will make a mess, small leaks, even if no product escapes, may allow air to get in and spoil the product.
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